Tag Archives: sell your diamond

Outlandish Jewelry Terminology

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Starting with “O”

Objets de Vertu – Here we step outside of the traditional definition of what constitutes jewelry (an object that is physically attached to you in some manner), to include Objets de Vertu.  These are any of the fancy, often gem encrusted and precious metal based items that people typically use to transport functional things.  Pearl inlaid cigarette cases, solid gold lighters, platinum cell phones cases with intaglios of Bernie Sanders, etc. 

Objets Trouvés – While their origins date back to neolithic times, Objets Trouvés are a favorite of environmentally conscious jewelry designers working today.  The term translates from French (which obviously Early Man spoke fluently) to “found objects.”  Ergo, before modern jewelry, which utilizes all manner of technology, had been invented, people made things out of whatever they could find; shells, bones, teeth, pebbles and AOL installation CDs.  

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Oiling – this is a process (which is true to its name) that was designed to improve the overall color and quality of gemstones (mostly emeralds) that have internal fractures that creep to the their surfaces.  By literally oiling them up with a specific lubricant, the cracks are filled and the stones look a little brighter.  Be weary of any oily jewelers trying to pass such slippery stones off on to you. 

Omega Back – while this sounds like the name of a hip, new British thriller on Netflix, it’s actually the back portion found on mostly vintage earrings.  It’s a little loop that holds the earrings in place.  In the shape of the Omega letter of the Greek alphabet (familiar to any of you collegiate toga donning folk), it works with pierced and non-pierced ear earrings; the hoop holds up the pointy part, or just acts as a clasp.

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Opaline Glass – a grand imitator of precious gemstones, Opaline Glass appears in a bluish, cloudy hue.  A metallic, foil backing to the faux fancy stone really makes its color “pop.”   A trendy item during the Georgian period (no, not when the state of Georgia was popular…nor the country…but when 4 consecutive King Georges reigned in England; 1714 through 1830).  It saw a brief rival during the second Georgian period (the two Bush presidencies).   

Opera Length Necklace – the name may be self evident, but the actual length is somewhat specific.  To qualify for this distinction, the necklace must be between 26 and 36 inches in length, and it has to be worn with a fancy dress out to actual operas, hip-hoperas or, in the very least, while watching you favorite soap opera.  

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Opus Interrasile – a golden hit during the Byzantine era, this is a process of puncturing metal with a sharp device in order to pepper it with a multitude of stylish holes.  This translates from Latin to “work openings,” which is exactly what Roman goldsmiths were always scouring Craigius’s List for.    

Oreide – or ‘oroide’ or “French Gold” – this is an alloy which winningly masquerades as gold, utilizing mostly copper, with a little molten zinc and tin thrown in there for seasoning.  

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Ouch – yes…this one is gonna hurt.  Ironically, this describes a piece of jewelry, usually a pendant or brooch, that doesn’t require a sharp pin to hold it in place; rather it is hand sewn onto one’s clothing.  Typically they would feature a central gem surrounded by a fine metal filigree.  Chaps frolicking around during Medieval times would use them as the fastening parts of their flowing cloaks (with a chain that connected them).  The gemstone component would make them valuable, naturally, so if one were to fall off, people would remark “…ouch.”

Ouroboros – one of the coolest ancient symbols found in jewelry.  It’s a snake or dragon that is biting its own tail, thus completing a perfect and eternal loop (great for necklaces, obviously).  It symbolizes the cyclical aspect of nature and self-reflexivity in beings with consciousness and also exemplifies really hungry snakes.  Folks in the 1840’s went mad for these things, sticking winking precious gemstones in the eye sockets and scaring children.     

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Overtone – a property that only certain pearls will exhibit, this describes a secondary, and sometimes even tertiary, hue that is visible over the pearl’s primary color.  These can manifest in light green, blue and pink…overtones.  

Oxide Finish – here we have metal that gets entirely dipped in a black finish, like taking an permanent bath in tar.  Usually strategic parts are buffed to allow for the underlying metal to shine through.  This is a great way to showcase the intricacies of a silver engagement ring with fine filigree or the dented fender of a Ford Pinto.  

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-Joe Leone 

Noble Jewelry Terms

“N”

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Naif – You’d have to be a real naif to think this term only applies to easily deceived individuals.  In the diamond world, a naif is any unpolished surface on the stone.  In cut and polished diamonds, some naif may be left behind on the girdle (in this case, called a ‘bruted girdle’) to give the stone a lil’ something extra (in terms of carat weight). 

Násfa – Pendants dating back to the 1500’s were affectionately known as Nasfas, that is if you were in the land of Hungary.  Typically fashioned with a flower theme, gallant groom-to-bes would give these to their betrothed beauties from Budpest as an engagement present.  If they waited to gift them to their brides on the day after their wedding, they were then called “Morgengabes,” which roughly translates to “Prisoner’s Brooch.”

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Navette – this is a nifty name you can give to any gemstone cut in the Marquis style (in an oval shape, with pointed tips).  What sets this apart is that it usually describes gems that have this type of silhouette, but are not faceted (meaning the stone is smooth, in the cabochon category).  If a jeweler asks if you would like your gem cut in this manner and you are opposed to it, simply answer “No, no navette.”

Nécessaire – here we have any sort of container that is used to hold essential, every day items.  These can range drastically in fanciness, from ordinary leather satchels that you stick a fork, spoon or spork in, to fantastically designed golden vessels, utilized in transporting elegant grooming devices, styling products, extra cell phone chargers and a birth certificate authenticating your royal lineage.  

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Négligée – much like the French under garment of the same name, this is a style of necklace that is truly naughty.  The defining features are its delicate chain and two pendant pieces, which hang down about the neck.  What makes this so scandalous is that the pendants are hung at different lengths.   The asymmetry embodied here was the talk of the town in turn of the 20th century France.   

Neo-Renaissance – yes, this is the stylistic period most favored by the protagonist in “The Matrix,” but it also represents the time during the mid to late 1800’s when Europeans were reviving Renaissance (1300-1600’s) inspired art, architecture and jewelry.  Pieces popular during this era were often colorful, ornate and intricately designed.  It is widely unconfirmed if anyone attended the “Neo-Renaissance Fair.”

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Nephrite – is a stone type that is so similar to jadeite, that the two are lumped together and collectively called “Jade.”  Some contentious trading of this gemstone between Burma and China for centuries, mostly resolved today.  

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Nicolo – any design etched into the stone onyx that appears light or bright blue is said to be a nicolo.  These little elevated cameos (or their inverted opposites; hollowed out intaglios) were especially popular in ancient Egyptian jewelry.  

Niello – a sturdier alternative to enamel, this is a black, metallic substance which is applied over a metal surface (usually silver).  Then it’s etched and configured into any number of symbols and designs.  Great for knights who like their shields to be extra strong, as well as flamboyant.  

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Noble Metal – if you can successfully fight off corrosion, and stay eternally shiny, you may qualify to be deemed a noble metal.  These include the big three – that’s right, you guessed it – gold, silver and platinum.  Much like the Tin Man, these precious metals are not only noble in name, but in their pure, metallic hearts as well.  

-Joe Leone 

The Mythical Mazarins: A Weird Tale of History’s Most Famous Diamond Group

via Wikipedia.en
via Wikipedia.en

History is no stranger to diamonds with epic, tumultuous and storied pasts; the Shah, the Black Orlov and the Hope, to name a few.  However, there hardly exists a famous diamond nomenclature that is used to describe a multitude of stones; eighteen of the sparklers, to be exact!  Let’s delve deep into the recesses of gemstone history to discover the odd origins and sprawling paths that this collection of famed gems have ventured down. 

It began with one man; Giulio Raimondo Mazzarino (born on July 14th, 1602).  Unless you’re really bad at guessing this type of thing, you’ve correctly assumed he was of Italian descent.  Early on, he left his home in the Kingdom of Naples and sought education, by the Jesuits, in Roma.  However, for reasons only known to the intriguing Naples native, Guilio all but renounced his heritage, moved to France and fully ensconced himself in full French fashion.  Forgoing spaghetti for escargot, he altered his moniker as well, now assuming the identity of one “Jules Raymond Mazarin.”  Through a series of fortunate events, ‘Mazarin’ was able to utilize his syncretic education and weave his way into the close knit community of French aristocrats and nobles.  His apparent charms knew no end, despite his alleged gambling problem and proclivity to chase married women; namely, the Queen of France.  Now here’s where his somewhat apocryphal tale gets significantly weirder.  Mazarin, despite not holding any previous titles in the clergy and being a married man (a marriage he was rumored to have been forced into to repay a particularly hefty debt incurred through unbridled gambling), was somehow able to ascend to the role of Cardinal.  Admission into such a high position in the Roman Catholic Church has never been a simple task, so there is much speculation about how this truly went down.  Through this auspicious and serendipitous trajectory, Mazarin was able to amass his amazing amalgamation of gemstones.  

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While the legend of Mazarin is steeped in many unsubstantiated stories and wild rumors, historians have narrowed down a few solid possibilities for his rapid ascension to Catholic fame.  One such theory is that French Cardinal Richelieu (the right hand man to the current king, Louis the 13th) was visiting Rome and was introduced to a plucky, young Mazarin.  He promptly invited the seemingly sedulous scamp to venture back with him to Paris, to try his hand at bourgeois Parisian life.  Under Richelieu’s wing, Mazarin quickly adapted to the politics of French Catholicism and became all but indispensable to the religious magnate.  A mainstay of the royal court, Mazarin now found himself rubbing shoulders with his holiest of holies, the Pope, and his kingliest of kings, Louis XIII.  By 1641 ole Louis Louis had appointed Mazarin a Cardinal himself, thus sealing the once-Italian’s legacy.  While many believed King Louis to fancy the not-so-fair sex, there is no direct evidence linking his tastes in gentlemen of the court to why Mazarin was able to slip in so seamlessly.  Nevertheless, Louis would kick the bucket a mere two years later; a victim to tuberculosis.  This would pave the way for Mazarin to further secure his status as a royal player…

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Mazarin now seemed destined to procure the favor of the recently widowed Queen Anne.  One interesting snippet about him and the Queen that circulated involves his love of the gamble.  While playing a card game in court (or whatever 17th century folk did that involved betting), Mazarin was on a real hot streak and had a huge pile of gold in front of him.  As the amour-deprived Queen walked into the room, Mazarin impulsively put all his winnings on the line.  He won the bet and immediately began fawning all over the Queen, attributing her fortuitous aura to his hearty haul.  This (among other undisclosed, most likely naughty things) would garner the Queen’s esteem, and once Cardinal Richelieu was dead and out of the picture, she named Mazarin the First Minister of France.  From that point on Mazarin was co-calling the shots in France.  Acting as a virtual stepdad to the lil’ king Louis the 14th (more hearsay dictates that Mazarin and the Queen took clandestine vows of their own), Mazarin and Anne were not only knocking knees but were leading the nation.  Times were not always smooth sailing, as phalanxes of the French people revolted here and there, but Mazarin kept his head held high until he finally succumbed to illness in 1661, leaving behind a wake of questions as to how such an unknown person could reign so supreme.  

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Now on to the diamonds.  Unfortunately, the actual origin of the majority of the 18 stones remains shrouded in mystery.  Two of the best known diamonds in the collection, however, the “Sancy” and the “Mirror of Portugal” do have definitive roots.  They both essentially were collateral turned into actual payment from the King of England, Charles I’s widow, Henrietta, to a dude named the Duke of Épernon – who subsequently sold the diamonds to Mazarin.  Wanting to further bolster his collection, Mazarin sequestered some more stones from England’s coup captain and interim ruler, Oliver Cromwell.  Amongst these new stones came the first ever “brilliant” cut diamond – which has yet to relinquish its title as ‘engagement ring stone of choice.’  When Mazarin passed over to the great cathedral in the sky, he willed his 18 diamonds to the French Crown.  His faux stepson, Louis the 14th, had three of the gems forged into his “battle” sword and donned them with pride (at his hip, of course, never in actual combat).

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It would seem that this Brobdingnagian assortment of priceless diamonds would have been solidified in history as major gemological mainstay, but, alas, twas not meant to be.  More than a century after Mazarin’s death, a bold robbery took place; the Garde Meuble, where the stones were tucked away, was ransacked and 12 of the stones were lost forever (including the much beloved Mirror of Portugal).  While these gems were all substantial in size, and thus fairly easy to recognize, popular belief is that they have been recut over the years to avoid detection.  If you’d like to take a gander at some of the remaining diamonds, three of the diaphanous stones are on display at the Louvre in Paris.  Alas, most of the Mazarins live on in memory, myth and mystery alone. 

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-Joe Leone 

Diamond No-No’s

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So you’ve got a diamond.

A beautiful, sparkling, glorious diamond.  It can twinkle in the dimmest of light.  It can turn heads from across the room.  It is absolutely perfect.

Except for one little thing.  It has __________.

“Well, what’s the ‘blank’?” you indignantly wonder.  “My diamond has great specs!”  That may be, but there are factors that go beyond just the basic 4C’s that can have a surprisingly drastic affect on a diamond’s value. 

Let’s now take a look at some of the most prevalent and also some of the more obscure things that can negatively impact your diamond and its overall resale value.  

Fracture Filling

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If your diamond has undergone fracture filling, you yourself may end up filled with despair.  This is a process that is applied to natural diamonds to essentially ‘fill up’ internal cracks within the stone (to improve their clarity – ergo, this is a brand of “clarity enhancement”).  The fractures are filled with a substance (a lead oxychloride glass epoxy) that has a similar refractive index to diamond (thereby maintaining its normal sparkle), in order to best mask the flaws to the naked eye.  If these cracks run all the way up to the surface, the glass-based glop can just be injected right in; if not, then the stone must be “laser drilled” to get in there (we’ll get to that whole practice in just a minute).  “So, what’s so bad about that?” you justifiably may be thinking.  The problem is this; the solutions used to fill in those fractures do not have the same remarkably high heat index that diamonds have.  So, when a jeweler is positioning a diamond into a new piece of jewelry, or even just fixing a banged up old band or what have you, they use a torch.  This torch doesn’t damage diamond at all, but the heat can cause the diamond to ‘sweat out’ the filling material, like a fat man on a treadmill after a night of drinking spiked egg nog.  Hence, the fractures are now visible again and the stone’s clarity grade takes a nosedive.  Just how bad is this?  It’s so bloody awful that the GIA won’t even issue certificates for stones that have undergone fracture filling.  The most aggravating part of this whole mess is that some companies do not inform their customers that the stones they are purchasing are fracture filled.  So there you are, ignorantly walking around with a diamond that’s filled with other stuff.  Please at least attempt to refrain from murdering anyone who sold you one of these fracture filled farces.  

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Laser Drilling

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While this process sounds quite high tech (and a little James Bond-ish), it’s nothing to be that excited about.  It’s another method employed to remove ugly, nasty or just mean spirited inclusions in diamonds.  By drilling to the root of the undesired blotch in the stone (which is just a piece of black carbon that came together as the diamond formed), you expose the inclusion.  The you can pour a little, good ole fashioned sulfuric acid down the hole and burn that droll smudge out of there.  The drill that’s used is, of course, an infrared laser, and the hole that it bores into the stone is microscopic.  Meaning, you can’t see these channels without the aide of a loupe, microscope or psychically charged ‘third eye.’  The dilemma inherent in laser drilled diamonds is that their internal structure has now been messed with.  Who’s to say that the drilling process didn’t corrupt the integrity of the diamond; incipient cracks could be on the cusp of erupting at any time.  The stone may be fine, but there’s just no way to tell.  So as a result, professional diamond buyers are reluctant to acquire such stones – which may vengefully come back to bite them in the tuckus later.  

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Irradiation

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Take a long hard look at your diamond…do you suspect that it’s been violently blasted with neutrons and electrons?  Irradiation is a type of “color enhancement,” and if you have a white diamond, logic would dictate that you probably don’t have to worry too much about this (meaning that the process improves colored diamonds, not that it ameliorates a not so great white diamond’s color grade).  It’s a procedure that utilizes radiation in order to alter colored diamonds at the atomic level, amping their color up from a dull and listless hue to a bright and boisterous shade.  Aside from very rare cases where diamonds can actually undergo irradiation naturally, while still in the ground, stones that have been through this intense tanning bed experience are considered ‘altered,’ ‘treated’ and ‘fake-baked’ to diamond purists.  Translation: valued less.             

 

HPHT

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This abbreviation stands for “High Pressure High Temperature,” and is a procedure that has been riddled with controversy since its inception.  Scientists working at General Electric at the end of the 20th century discovered that they could, more or less, heat and squeeze all the hideous tints out of diamonds, thus making them clear as day.  A bit of an oversimplification, but the overall HTHP operation, which somehow zaps poor color out of white diamonds and also intensifies shades in colored stones, became embroiled in scandal when many of the diamonds that went through this molecular rigamarole were passed off as naturally occurring.  Again, within the milieu of diamond connoisseurs, these rocks just don’t fly as the real deal, and are intrinsically worth significantly less than their organic counterparts.  HPHT stones are given an intaglio on the girdle which demarcates their altered nature, but this can be easily removed, further fueling the ire directed at these augmented diamonds.  

 

Fluorescence  

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In all honesty, this one is a little baffling.  Here is an extensive run down on what fluorescence is and how it can affect your diamond – but the bottom line is that in today’s market, diamonds that exhibit strong fluorescence are unfortunately less desirable.  In the most basic, rudimentary terms, fluorescence is what turns a diamond blue when placed under a black light.  That’s it.  Once in an unfavorably blue moon, a diamond that has strong fluorescence may appear a bit milky when viewed in regular light, but this fickle property of fluorescence is usually just invisible altogether.  The reason why this currently is viewed as a negative is rather up in the air, but if your diamond has fluorescence, you’re up a creek sans a rowing device.   

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Doublet

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This is extremely rare in the diamond world, as it would seem that not even the most disreputable jeweler would try to dupe you with one of these, but stranger things have happened.  This is where the top portion of a diamond (the table) is a real, authentic stone; the bottom (the pavilion) however, is a simulant.  Either C.Z. or quartz or some other damnable fake.  The two parts are glued together and violà; a gem that reads as real when viewed from above, but is a total sham when you look up its rear.    

The only way to know for sure if your diamond has been cursed with any of these dastardly traits is to have it evaluated by a knowledgeable professional.  Thankfully, the expert gemology staff at Diamond Lighthouse is at your disposal.  If you possess a sizable diamond (1 carat and higher) that you’re looking to sell, we can perform a comprehensive test on in, making sure that it is not afflicted with any of the aforementioned natural or man-made maladies.  This evaluation and shipping are both totally free as well.  How’s that for service?  We’ll also find you the absolute best price imaginable for your diamond.  Find out more here

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-Joe Leone 

Miraculous Jewelry Terms (“M”)

Jewelry Phrases beginning with “M” 

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Macaroni – aside from being one of the tastier carbs and an old timey term for being ‘in fashion,’ this also describes a chatelaine that is draped over one’s belt instead of hooked.  The chatelaine, if you recall, is that fancy keychain the ‘Lady of the House,’ or “Big Momma,” wore during the Elizabethan period.

Mallorca Pearls – these are faux pearls, with hearts of glass.  From the Spanish isle which bares their name, these little orbs are created by repeatedly dipping a glass ball into a shiny concoction made of fish scales and oil (aka: ‘smelly stew’ or ‘sea goo’).  The term is now widely used to describe all kinds of fake pearls – and older women named ‘Pearl’ who act phony.

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Manchette – leave it to the French to turn yet another everyday item into a sneakily chic jewelry creation.  This word means “cuff” en Français, hence the manchette is what is commonly known today as a ‘cuff bracelet.’  It looks just like the frilly end of a Victorian lady’s sleeve, and really comes in handy if you simply abhor having cuffs made out of fabric.

Married Jewelry – while you naturally assume that this refers to wedding bands, you naturally are wrong.  This is any type of jewelry piece that embodies one specific style and then is augmented with another add-on piece (which can be from either the same time period/design motif or from another one altogether).  Hence, you have two separate goods that have been ‘married’ together, like Kardshians and athletes.

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Mascaron – is the equivalent of a modern emoji, but the mean/scary ones.  A mascaron is a face, which can be human, animal, a human-animal hybrid, or a goblin/demon.   They are used in architecture on the side of buildings to keep evil spirits away and in jewelry to keep normal people away.

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Meander – this refers to a border, often seen in ancient Greek architecture, that has a repetitious, angular linear pattern.  The Hellenists (or ‘Greek Revivalists’) were fond of this motif, using it in a lot of jewelry items (such as “Greek Key” bracelets) at the turn of the 19th century.  Another term for a meander design is the “running dog,” as it looks like a little Fido trying to eternally catch itself in an M.C. Escherian maze.

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Meershaum – is a whitish, very lightweight clay-esque material that is often used in lieu of ivory (thankfully, for those who deplore ivory usage).  Importing tons of the stuff from Asia, German designers have used meershaum for generations to craft cigarette holders and ornate bowl pipes (thankfully, for those who enjoy smoking…things).  Meershaum sometimes makes a cameo in cameos, once again impersonating cruelly derived ivory.

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Memento Mori – and now for the single most morbid jewelry trend in history thus far.  This phrase translates directly from Latin to “Remember, you must die,” which is quite helpful if you’re the forgetful type.  Oddly popular for over 200 years (from the 1500’s through the 1700’s – and then again with modern day “Goths,” of course, who inundate Hot Topics in malls all over the country), these are rings, pendants and lockets, often with secret compartments, that were fashioned to look like skulls, skeletons and Larry King.

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Memorial Rings – are just what they sound like; rings that are constructed to memorialize or laud a person (ie – the King) or a special event (Macy’s year-end clearance sale).  Often they will have the silhouette of a chap or lady embedded in them, which serves as a creepy reminder that the soul depicted there is always with you.  ALWAYS.

Menuki – are intricately designed metal ornaments that were originally used to make Japanese sword handles look really pretty…right before they killed you.  Menuki became all the rage in the Western world during the end of the 1800’s, in the super throwback Art Nouveau era.

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Micromosaic – this is a form of art that is extremely difficult to achieve, so if someone ever gives you a micromosaic pendant or brooch, just be grateful to the person who spent days putting it together and send them a micro-kiss.  It’s made from tiny glass or enamel parts (called ‘tesserae’) that have a bunch of different hues.  You put it all together in a gold, copper or brass tray to create an image (like an ancient Italian Lite Brite).

Milk and Honey Effect – much like the biblical land of the same name, this is something you strive for when picking out chrysoberyl gemstones.  Don’t recall what those are?  They’re those stones that exhibit the ‘cat eye’ phenomenon; so the M&H effect here is when the feline eye looks like equal parts the sugary goo that bears enjoy and the liquid that cows generously supply our children with.

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Millefiori – speaking of micro mosaics, these are minuscule flower bouquets sometimes found in these miniature works of art.  It’s also a good name for a Bond Girl.

Minaudière – One of the many Van Cleef & Arpels patented items, this is a dainty little clutch designed for women to use to store their make-up, combs and secrets.  The exterior typically features floral, woven designs with little lipstick-protecting hummingbirds and the like on there.

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Mizpah Ring – taken right out of the bible, Mizpah is Hebrew for “Watchtower,” and refers to god watching over man.  Ergo, gold, silver or sometimes brass rings would be engraved with this word (and for jewelers with tiny baby fingers, sometimes the a whole quote from the bible in relation to this).  Not to be confused with a bar mizpah (that’s a tavern where god watches you drink).

Mokume Gane – is the Japanese nomenclature for a technique of lamination that makes metal look like grained wood.  This was used back in the day for Japanese sword blades (possibly so they appeared to be wooden and then opponents would let their guards down?), but today it can be found on all manner of wearable jewelry.

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Mordant – the end of the one’s belt (that doesn’t have the buckle on it) can be affixed with a mordant, which is a metal thingy that helps the belt easily slide through the pant loops.  Some buckles are fancy and are bejeweled and the mordants are set with matching stones.  In jewelry, mordants are mostly used to jazz up bracelet ends.  A common misconception is that Mordants are inhabitants of Mordor.

Moresque – a design style which contains scroll-like shapes, originating from the North Africa.  Renaissance people were really into this look, incorporating it into all kinds of jewelry.  The designs are beautifully complicated, ironically giving rise to the phrase “less is moresque.”

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Mounting on Moor – is a sneaky trick in the diamond world, where one gives the stone a little bit of a ‘tint’ in the pavilion portion, which hides unsightly blemishes inside it.  Like putting a “Kelvin” filter on an unflattering Instagram pic.

Mourning Jewelry – a self-explanatory term, these are jewelry pieces that people would wear when a loved one departed, to show the world they were very sad but still of course cared about fashionable accessories.  Obviously darker materials were employed in making these pieces, such as onyx, black enamels and crystals, jet and in some cases, the actual hair of the mourned individual.  These particular, hair-inclusive jewelry pieces were also known as “please get that away from me.”

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Muff Chain – is a lengthy chain that loops around a lady’s neck, hangs all the way down and clasps her muffler, or muff, which is that fuzzy guy that keeps hands warm.  This was a must-have object during the 1700’s, when people were apparently losing their muffs left and right.

Joe Leone